"[W]e recognize that the constitutionality of a statute, valid on its face, may be assailed by proof of facts tending to show that the statute as applied to a particular article is without support in reason because the article, although within the prohibited class, is so different from others of the class as to be without the reason for the prohibition” United States v. Carolene Products Co., 304 U.S. 144, 153-54 (1938)

The Controlled Substance Act is to control dangerous drugs. There are two government documents below saying marijuana is not dangerous as well common knowledge  no one has died from smoking pot. Marijuana is arbitrarily classified as a controlled substance. Marijuana does not meet all three criteria. Marijuana is safe to use without medical supervision. Being a crime, it is deprivation of liberty and property without compelling reasons, without due process of law violating Amendments IV. V, and XIV.

The Attorney General of the United States has had the authority to add or remove any drug that does not meet all three criteria to schedule drugs into 5 schedules. But congress has made it so the AG can not do this because of an obligation to a United Nations Single Convention on Narcotics Drugs (1961). This U.N. Convention does allow constitutional limitation in Article 36.  Article VI  of the Constitution of the United States makes this international treaty the law of the land and the states are to abide by it. 

The government claims no constitutional rights are impinge on the constitutional right of liberty by incarceration because marijuana is not a constitutional right. Therefore, it is a political question,  

By the political process States have legalized marijuana in violation Article VI of the Constitution of the United States. Scheduling cannabis as a Schedule I drug was required by United Nations’ Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs (1961). 

Without constitutional limitations (Article 36) this convention is the law of the land and is codified by United States Code TITLE 21 -Chapter 13 FOOD AND DRUGS CHAPTER 13 -DRUG ABUSE PREVENTION AND CONTROL 

Article VI U. S. Constitution 2nd Clause

This Constitution, and the Laws of the United States which shall be made in Pursuance thereof; and all Treaties made, or which shall be made, under the Authority of the United States, shall be the supreme Law of the Land; and the Judges in every State shall be bound thereby, any Thing in the Constitution or Laws of any State to the Contrary notwithstanding.

                                 Notwithstanding  Synonyms   Preposition: despite regardless of  Adverb: however,                                        nevertheless, nonetheless,



UN commission reclassifies cannabis, yet still considered harmful | | UN News





Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, 1961


Go to page 32 or 18 of document.

Art. 36. Penal provisions         



a) Subject to its constitutional limitations, each Party shall adopt such measures as will ensure that cultivation, production, manufacture, extraction, preparation, possession, offering, offering for sale, distribution, purchase, sale, delivery on any terms whatsoever, brokerage, dispatch, dispatch in transit, transport, importation and exportation of drugs contrary to the provisions of this Convention, and any other action which in the opinion of such Party may be contrary to the provisions of this Convention, shall be punishable offences when committed intentionally, and that serious offences shall be liable to adequate punishment particularly by imprisonment or other penalties of deprivation of liberty.


b) Notwithstanding the preceding subparagraph, when abusers of drugs have committed such offences, the Parties may provide, either as an alternative to conviction or punishment or in addition to conviction or punishment, that such abusers shall undergo measures of treatment, education, after-care, rehabilitation and social reintegration in conformity with paragraph 1 of article 38. 



21 U.S. Code § 801a - Congressional findings and declarations: psychotropic substances.



1. (a) Subject to its constitutional limitations,

2. Subject to the constitutional limitations of a Party,


United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances, 1988








21 USC § 801(2) Congressional findings and declarations:


21 USC § 811 Authority and criteria for classification of substances

(a) Rules and regulations of Attorney General; hearing

Attorney General shall apply the provisions of this  . . .  Except  as provided in subsections 811 (d) of this section, 


(d) International treaties, conventions, and protocols requiring control; procedures respecting changes in drug schedules of Convention on Psychotropic Substances


(1) If control is required by United States obligations under international treaties, conventions, or protocols in effect on October 27, 1970, the Attorney General shall issue an order controlling such drug under the schedule he deems most appropriate to carry out such obligations, without regard to the findings required by subsection (a) of this section or section 812(b) of this title and without regard to the procedures prescribed by subsections (a) and (b) of this section.


FACT: Marijuana is a recreational drug and does not meet
the criteria to be a controlled substance. Marijuana is safer to abuse than alcohol.


“[W]e recognize that the constitutionality of a statute, valid on its face, may be assailed by proof of facts tending to show that the statute as applied to a particular article is without support in reason because the article, although within the prohibited class, is so different from others of the class as to be without the reason for the prohibition. “ United States v. Carolene Products Co., 304 U.S. 144, 153, 154 (1938).


In 1931 the Louisiana Supreme court declared:


The “marijuana plant is a plant possessing properties deleterious to health and dangerous to the public safety and morals”. The court concluded that whiskey and wine were less injurious than marijuana. State v Bonoa 172 LA. 955-963, (1931)


No one has died from marijuana poisoning therefore it can not be determined to be dangerous.


The national case law has defined the “Controlled Substance Act” as “a comprehensive regulatory measure that divides the universe of hazardous drugs into five different categories of substances (so called schedules), which determine the severity of restrictions on doctors’ and patients’ access to controlled drugs.” And “ Schedule I drugs are subject to the most severe controls; they are deemed the most dangerous substances, possessing no redeeming value as a medicines”. Alliance for Cannabis Therapeutics v DEA, 930 F2d 936, at 937. (D.C. Cir. 1991).





Drug Enforcement Administration

In the matter of
Marijuana Rescheduling Petition
Docket No. 86-22
FRANCIS L. YOUNG, Administrative Law Judge




p. 56-58 With respect to whether or not there is "a lack of accepted safety for use of [marijuana] under medical supervision", the record shows the following facts to be uncontroverted.

Findings of Fact

3. The most obvious concern when dealing with drug safety is the possibility of lethal effects. Can the drug cause death?


4. Nearly all medicines have toxic, potentially lethal effects. But marijuana is not such a substance. There is no record in the extensive medical literature describing a proven, documented cannabis-induced fatality.






U.S. Food and Drug Administration



Inter-Agency Advisory Regarding Claims That Smoked Marijuana Is a Medicine Marijuana is listed in schedule I of the Controlled Substances Act (CSA), the most restrictive schedule.

The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), which administers the CSA, continues to support that placement and FDA concurred because marijuana met the three criteria for placement in Schedule I under 21 U.S.C. 812(b)(1) (e.g., marijuana has a high potential for abuse, has no currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States, and has a lack of accepted safety for use under medical supervision). Furthermore, there is currently sound evidence that
smoked marijuana is harmful. "


The “placement in schedule I does not appear to flow inevitably from the lack of a currently accepted medical use.” “The legislative history of the CSA indicates that medical use is but one factor to be considered and by no means the most important one. 58” NORML v. D.E.A. 559 F2d 735 at 748 (1977)













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